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the tree

cleaning polluted air through biomimicry 


 

DESIGN PROBLEM

 

Ever since the industrial revolution, pollution has always been an issue from continents to continents. Pollution is not only a health hazard but also an economical and social issue. Pollution destroys the balance of the enviroment and human health, and also damages social connection between people and nature. 

PM 2.5 are fine particulate matter in the air that reduce visibility and causes the air to appear hazy when levels are elevated. 

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The chart below illustrates the concentration of PM 2.5 over a three-day period collected in the City of Beijing.  Saturday demonstrated the highest concentration of PM 2.5 and PM 10 amongst the three-day period. For this reason, NO2 (Nitrogen Dioxide), SO2 (Sulfur Dioxide), CO (Carbon Monoxide) were at its highest as these components form PM 2.5. The pressure was at its lowest, as this is an indication of a higher concentration of fine particulars in the air. In contrast, Monday had the lowest concentration of PM 2.5 amongst the three-day period. Hence, the pressure was at it highest as this allows for less concentration of fine particulars. 

 

 

RESEARCH

 

Cuticle is a layer of lipid polymer impregnated with waxes functions as permeability barriers for water and water-soluble materials. The cuticle both prevents plant surfaces from becoming wet and helps to prevent plants from drying out.

Epidermis It protects against water loss, regulates gas exchange (there are only a few stomata on the uppermost layer of the leaf) and produces the waxy substance that becomes part of the cuticle.

Palisade Mesophyll are responsible for photosynthesis because they contain chloroplasts.

Spongy Mesophyll together with the intercellular air spaces, allow for the interchange of gases.

Lower Epidermis has stomata, which allow gases to enter and leave the leaf as a result of photosynthesis and respiration.

Stomata are small openings or pores on the surface of leaves. The function of stomata is to allow gases such as oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide to move around the leaf.

Xylem is the specialised tissue of vascular plants that transports water and nutrients from the plant–soil interface to stems and leaves, and provides mechanical support and storage.

Phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis (known as photosynthate), in particular the sugar sucrose, to all parts of the plant where needed. This transport process is called translocation.

Trichome  is an epidermal "hair". Trichomes can be singular or multicellular. Trichome is thought to be in plant defense against insects. Chemicals produced in the glandular tip can deter feeding or the trichome can physically prevent the insect from reaching and feeding on the leaf.

 
Beijing is a city with a long history. Modern Beijing uses Forbidden City as the center expanding out. From the Second Ring Road to the Fifth Ring Road, the development of the transportation system represent the development of the capital of China. During our research, the form of the ring roads inspired us and remind us about spider web.   

Beijing is a city with a long history. Modern Beijing uses Forbidden City as the center expanding out. From the Second Ring Road to the Fifth Ring Road, the development of the transportation system represent the development of the capital of China. During our research, the form of the ring roads inspired us and remind us about spider web.

 

Spider web can be quited strong, expansive and elastic. The structure system of the spider web can take a lot of force and even if some parts failed, the system can still function.

Spider web can be quited strong, expansive and elastic. The structure system of the spider web can take a lot of force and even if some parts failed, the system can still function.

By studying the structure of spider web,  combined the Beijing city grid, we begin to think about our tower arrangement. The arrangement should not only serve locally, but should also work as a whole. Each tower shall be able to communicate with each other and distribute according to the changes of the environment. 

By studying the structure of spider web,  combined the Beijing city grid, we begin to think about our tower arrangement. The arrangement should not only serve locally, but should also work as a whole. Each tower shall be able to communicate with each other and distribute according to the changes of the environment. 

 
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Over millions of years, forests have been home to many mammals, birds, insects and organisms. Today, forests occupy one third of the Earth’s land area are becoming more and more threatened as the rise in human population continues to increase. Deforestation and polluted air and soil are causing drastic changes in weather patterns all over the globe. Nonetheless, natural forests have an amazing ability to withstand and eliminate pollutants by its natural structure.  Brittle trees are naturally positioned on the outer perimeter of a forest, as it protects and removes contaminated matter from entering inside, as it can disrupt feeble trees and organisms inside. 

Forest Biome is made up of four layers that contribute to eliminating contaminated particles in the air. First, is the ground layer, which is ideal for Lichen and fungi as it is dark and damp. This layer only receives 2-15% of sunlight and has a higher humidity concentration, which is perfect for mosquitoes and other insects. Second, is the understory layer, this layer consist of grasses, common house plants that do not require much light such as zebra plants, peace lilies, and philodendrons can be found in this layer. Third, the tree canopy layer provides food to insects, birds and some mammals. This layer is densely packed with branches, for this reason many animals seek this level for shelter. Lastly, is the Emergent layer, which is the highest layer that absorbs sunlight. Animals such as monkeys, bats, birds, and butterflies can be found living in this layer. .

 

 

CONCEPT

 

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DESIGN SOLUTION

 

 

Over a period of time concentration of pollutants in the  atmosphere will diminish. The Tree filters polluted air and releases clean air into the city. Together, the Trees restores and balances the urban air as this is vital to the health and wellness of humans, animals, organisms and vegetation. 

 

 

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

 
The network of trees connect underground, it collects the particulate matter filtered from each tree above ground in the city of Beijing. The placement of the trees in the urban context imitate the composition of a natural forest. 

The network of trees connect underground, it collects the particulate matter filtered from each tree above ground in the city of Beijing. The placement of the trees in the urban context imitate the composition of a natural forest. 

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Over a period of time the high concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere will diminish. The Tree filters polluted air and releases clean air. The breathing pods mechanically open and close absorbing pollutants in the atmosphere. Together, the Trees restores and balances the urban air as the is vital to the health and wellness or humans, animals, organisms and vegetation. 

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The structural Tree is compose of four layers: the outer framing layer with the breathing pods, the structural frame, the membrane and the inner funnel which filters particulate matter in the air. These layers work together to eliminate the high concentration of pollutants. 

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COMPETITION BOARDS

 

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